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            Information and Trends
              行业英语词汇 首页 > 行业英语词汇
            一、 律师部分
            案件受理费 court acceptance fee
            案情重大、复杂 important and complicated case
            案由 cause of action
            案子 case
            包揽诉讼 monopolize lawsuits
            被告 defendant(用于民事、行政案件); the accused (用于刑事案件)
            被上诉人 appellee
            被诉人 respondent; defendant
            本案律师 councel pro hac vice
            本地律师 local counsel
            毕业证 diploma; graduation certificate
            辩护词 defense; pleadings
            辩护律师 defense lawyer
            辩护要点 point of defense
            辩护意见 submission
            财产租赁 property tenancy
            裁定书 order; ruling; determination(指终审裁定)
            裁决书 award(用于仲裁)
            裁决书 verdict(用于陪审团)
            采信的证据 admitted evidence; established evidence
            草拟股权转让协议 drafting agreement of assignment of equity interests
            查阅法条 source legal provisions
            产权转让 conveyancing
            出差 go on errand; go on a business trip
            出国深造 further study abroad
            出具律师意见书 providing legal opinion
            出示的证据 exhibit
            出庭 appear in court
            传票 summons; subpoena
            答辩状 answer; reply
            代理词 representation
            代理房地产买卖与转让 agency for sale and transfer of real estate
            代理公证、商标、专利、版权、房地产、工商登记 agency for notarization, trademark, patent, copyright, and registration of real estate and incorporations
            代理仲裁 agency for arbitration
            代写文书 drafting of legal instruments
            待决案件 pending case
            当事人陈述 statement of the parties
            第三人 third party
            吊销执业证 revocation of lawyer license
            调查笔录 investigative record
            调查取证 investigation and gathering for evidence
            调解 mediation
            调解书 mediation
            二审案件 case of trial of second instance
            发送电子邮件 send e-mail
            法律顾问 legal consultants
            法律意见书 legal opinions
            法律援助 legal aid
            法律咨询 legal counseling
            法庭 division; tribunal
            法学博士学位 LL.D (Doctor of Laws)
            法学会 law society
            法学课程 legal courses
            法学硕士学位 LL.M (Master of Laws)
            法学系 faculty of law; department of law
            法学学士学位 LL.B (Bachelor of Laws)
            J.D ( juris doctor缩写,美国法学学士)
            法学院 law school
            法院公告 court announcement
            反诉状 counterclaim
            房地产律师 real estate lawyer; real property lawyer
            非合伙律师 associate lawyer
            非诉讼业务 non-litigation practice
            高级合伙人 senior partner
            高级律师 senior lawyer
            各类协议和合同 agreements and contracts
            公安局 Public Security Bureau
            公司上市 company listing
            公诉案件 public-prosecuting case
            公证书 notarial certificate
            国办律师事务所 state-run law office
            国际贸易 international trade
            国际诉讼 international litigation
            国内诉讼 domestic litigation
            合伙律师 partner lawyer
            合伙制律师事务所 law office in partner-ship; cooperating law ofice
            合同审查、草拟、修改 contract review, drafting and revision
            会见当事人 interview a client
            会见犯罪嫌疑人 interview a criminal suspect
            兼职律师 part-time lawyer
            监狱 prison; jail
            鉴定结论 expert conclusion
            缴纳会费 membership dues
            举证责任 burden of proof; onus probandi
            决定书 decision
            勘验笔录 record of request
            看守所 detention house
            抗诉书 protest
            控告人 accuser; complainant
            跨国诉讼 transnational litigation
            劳动争议 labor disputes
            劳动争议仲裁委员会 arbitration committee for labor disputes
            劳改场 reform-through-labor farm; prison farm
            利害关系人 interested party; party in interest
            律管处处长 director of lawyer control department
            律师 lawyer attorney; attorney at law
            律师惩戒 lawyer discipline
            律师法 Lawyer Law
            律师费 lawyer fee
            律师函 lawyer's letter
            律师见证 lawyer attestation/authentication
            律师见证书 lawyer certification/authentication/witness
            律师卷宗 lawyer's docile; file
            律师刊物 lawyer's journal
            律师联系电话 contact phone number of a lawyer
            律师事务所 law office; law firm
            律师收费 billing by lawyer
            律师网站 lawyer website
            律师协会 National Bar (Lawyer) Association
            律师协会会员 member of Lawyer Association
            律师协会秘书长 secretary general of Bar (Lawyer) Association
            律师协会章程 Articles of Lawyer Assocition
            律师业务室 lawyer's office
            律师执业证 lawyer license
            律师助理 assistant lawyer
            律师资格考试 bar exam; lawyer qualification exam
            律师资格证 lawyer qualification certificate
            民事案件 civil case
            民事调解 civil mediation
            民事诉讼 civil litigation
            派出所 local police station; police substation
            判决 judgement(用于民事、行政案件);
            旁证 circumstantial evidence
            企业章程 articles of association; articles of incorporation; bylaw
            企业重组 corporate restructure
            起诉状 information; indictment
            取消律师资格 disbar
            全国律师代表大会 National Lawyer Congress
            缺席宣判 pronounce judgement or determination by default
            人民法院 People's Court
            人民检察院 People's Procuratorate
            认定事实 determine facts
            上诉案件 case of trial of second instance; appellate case
            上诉人 appellant
            上诉状 petition for appeal
            涉外律师 lawyers specially handling foreign-related matters
            申请复议 administrative reconsideration petition
            申请加入律师协会 application for admission to Law Association
            申请人 petitioner; claimant
            申诉案件 appeal case
            申诉人(仲裁) claimant; plaintiff
            申诉书 appeal for revision, petition for revision
            实习律师 apprentice lawyer; lawyer in probation period
            实习律师证 certificate of apprentice lawyer
            视听证据 audio-visual reference material
            适用法律 apply law to facts
            受害人 victim
            书证 documentary evidence
            司法部 Ministry of Justice
            司法建议书 judicial advise
            司法局 Judicial Bureau
            司法局副局长 deputy director of Judicial Bureau
            司法局局长 director of Judicial Bureau
            司法统一考试 uniform judicial exam
            送达 service of process
            诉讼 litigation; action; lawsuit
            诉讼当事人 litigation party; litigious party
            诉讼业务 litigation practice
            诉状 complaint; bill of complaint; statement of claim
            推销法律服务 promote/market legal service
            外国律师事务所 foreign law office
            委托代理合同 authorized representation contract
            委托代理人 agent ad litem; entrusted agent
            委托授权书 power of attorney
            物证 material evidence
            嫌疑人 criminal suspect
            项目融资 project financing
            项目谈判 project negotiating
            刑事案件 criminal case
            刑事诉讼 criminal litigation
            行政诉讼 administrative litigation
            休庭 adjourn the court; recess
            宣判 pronounce judgement; determination
            宣誓书 affidavit
            业务进修 attendance in advanced studies
            一审案件 case of trial of first instance
            与国外律师事务所交流 communicate with foreign law firms
            原告 plaintiff
            证券律师 securities lawyer
            证人证言 testimony of witness; affidavit
            执行笔录 execution record
            执业登记 registration for practice
            执业范围 scope of practice; sphere of practice; practice area
            执业申请 practice application
            执业证年检 annual inspection of lawyer license
            仲裁 arbitration
            仲裁案件 arbitration case
            仲裁机构 arbitration agency
            专门律师 specialized lawyer
            专职律师 professional lawyer; full-time lawyer
            撰写法律文章 write legal thesis
            资信调查 credit standing investigation
            自诉案件 private prosecuting case
            二、 诉讼法律
            案件 case
            案件发回 remand/rimit a case (to a low court)
            案件名称 title of a case
            案卷材料 materials in the case
            案情陈述书 statement of case
            案外人 person other than involved in the case
            案值 total value involved in the case
            败诉方 losing party
            办案人员 personnel handling a case
            保全措施申请书 application for protective measures
            报案 report a case (to security authorities)
            被告 defendant; the accused
            被告人最后陈述 final statement of the accused
            被告向原告第二次答辩 rejoinder
            被害人 victim
            被害人的诉讼代理人 victim's agent ad litem
            被上诉人 respondent; the appellee
            被申请人 respondent
            被申请执行人 party against whom execution is filed
            被执行人 person subject to enforcement
            本诉 principal action
            必要共同诉讼人 party in necessary co-litigation
            变通管辖 jurisdiction by accord
            辩护 defense
            辩护律师 defense attorney/lawyer
            辩护人 defender
            辩护证据 exculpatory evidence; defense evidence
            辩论阶段 stage of court debate
            驳回反诉 dismiss a counterclaim; reject a counterclaim
            驳回请求 deny/dismiss a motion
            驳回上诉、维持原判 reject/dismiss the appeal and sustain the original judgement/ruling
            驳回诉讼 dismiss an action/suit
            驳回通知书 notice of dismissal
            驳回自诉 dismiss/reject a private prosecution
            驳回自诉裁定书 ruling of dismissing private-prosecuting case
            补充答辩 supplementary answer
            补充判决 supplementary judgement
            补充侦查 supplementary investigation
            不公开审理 trial in camera
            不立案决定书 written decision of no case-filing
            不批准逮捕决定书 written decision of disapproving an arrest
            不起诉 nol pros
            不予受理起诉通知书 notice of dismissal of accusation by the court
            财产保全申请书 application for attachment; application for property preservation
            裁定 order; determination (指最终裁定)
            裁定管辖 jurisdiction by order
            裁定书 order; ruling
            裁决书 award
            采信的证据 admitted evidence
            查封 seal up
            撤回上诉 withdraw appeal
            撤诉 withdraw a lawsuit
            撤销立案 revoke a case placed on file
            撤销原判,发回重审 rescind the original judgement and remand the case ro the original court for retrial
            出示的证据 exhibit
            除权判决 invalidating judgement (for negotiable instruments)
            传唤 summon; call
            传闻证据 hearsay
            答辩 answer; reply
            答辩陈述书 statement of defence
            答辩状 answer; reply
            大法官 associate justices; justice
            大检察官 deputy chief procurator
            代理控告 agency for accusation
            代理申诉 agency for appeal
            代理审判员 acting judge
            代为申请取保候审 agency for application of the bail pending trial with restricted liberty of moving
            弹劾式诉讼 accusatory procedure
            当事人陈述 statement of the parties
            当庭宣判 pronouncement of judgement or sentence in court
            地区管辖 territorial jurisdiction
            地区检察分院 inter-mediate People's Procuratorate
            第三人 third party
            调查笔录 record of investigation
            定期宣判 pronouncement of judgement or sentence later on a fixed date
            定罪证据 incriminating evidence; inculpatory evidence
            冻结 freeze
            督促程序 procedure of supervision and urge
            独任庭 sole-judge bench
            独任仲裁员 sole arbitrator
            对妨碍民事诉讼的强制措施 compulsory measures against impairment of civil action
            对席判决 judgement inter parties
            二审 trial of second instance
            二审案件 case of trial of second insurance
            罚款 impose a fine
            法定证据 statutory legal evidence
            法定证据制度 system of legal evidence
            法官 judges
            法警 bailiff; court police
            法律文书 legal instruments/papers
            法律援助 legal aid
            法律咨询 legal consulting
            法庭辩论 court debate
            法庭调查 court investigation
            法庭审理笔录 court record
            法庭审理方式 mode of court trial
            法庭庭长 chief judge of a tribunal
            法院 court
            法院公告 court announcement
            反诉 counterclaim
            反诉答辩状 answer with counterclaim
            反诉状 counterclaim
            犯罪嫌疑人 criminal suspect
            附带民事诉讼案件 a collateral civil action
            附带民事诉讼被告 defendant of collateral civil action
            复查 reexamination; recheck
            复验 reinspect
            高级法官 senior judge
            高级检察官 senior procurator
            高级人民法院 Higher People's Court
            告诉案件 case of complaint
            告诉才处理的案件 case accepted at complaint
            告诉申诉庭 complaint and petition division
            工读学校 work-study school for delinquent children
            公安部 Ministry of Public Security
            公安分局 public security sub-bureau
            公安厅 public security bureau at the levels of provinces, autonomous regions and cities under direct jurisdiction of central government
            公开审理 trial in public
            公开审判制度 open trial system
            公示催告程序 procedure of public summons for exhortation
            公诉案件 public-prosecuting case
            公诉词 statement of public prosecution
            公证机关 public notary office
            共同管辖 concurrent jurisdiction
            管辖 jurisdiction
            国际司法协助 international judicial assistance
            海事法院 maritime court
            合议庭 collegial panel
            合议庭评议笔录 record of deliberating by the collegiate bench
            和解 composition; compromise
            核对诉讼当事人身份 check identity of litigious parties
            恢复执行 resumption of execution
            回避 withdrawal
            混合式诉讼 mixed action
            基层人民法院 basic People's Court
            羁押期限 term in custody
            级别管辖 subject matter jurisdiction of courts at different levels
            监视居住 living at home under surveillance
            监狱 prison
            检察官 procurator
            检察权 prosecutorial power
            检察委员会 procuratorial/prosecutorial committee
            检察院 procuratorate
            检察院派出机构 outpost tribunal of procuratorate
            简易程序 summary procedure
            鉴定结论 expert conclusion
            经济审判庭 economic tribunal
            径行判决 direct adjudication without sessions; judgement without notice
            纠问式诉讼 inquisitional proceedings
            拘传 summon by force; summon by warrant
            拘留所 detention house
            举报 information/report of an offence
            举证责任 burden of proof; onus probandi
            决定书 decision
            军事法院 military procuratorate
            开庭审理 open a court session
            开庭通知 notice of court session
            勘验笔录 record of inquest
            看守所 detention house
            可执行财产 executable property
            控告式诉讼 accusatory proceedings
            控诉证据 incriminating evidence
            控诉职能 accusation function
            扣押 distrain on; attachment
            扣押物 distress/distraint
            宽限期 period of grace
            劳动争议仲裁申请书 petition for labor dispute arbitration
            劳改场 reform-through-labor farm
            劳教所 reeducation-through-labor office
            类推判决的核准程序 procedure for examination and approval of analogical sentence
            累积证据 cumulative evidence
            立案报告 place a case on file
            立案管辖 functional jurisdiction
            立案决定书 written decision of case-filing
            立案侦查 report of placing a case on file
            利害关系人 interested party
            临时裁决书 interim award
            律师见证书 lawyer's written attestation; lawyer's written authentication
            律师事务所 law office; law firm
            律师提前介入 prior intervention by lawyer
            免于刑事处分 exemption from criminal penalty
            民事案件 civil case
            民事审判庭 civil tribunal
            民事诉讼 civil action
            民事诉讼法 Civil Procedural Law
            扭送 seize and deliver a suspect to the police
            派出法庭 detached tribunal
            派出所 police station
            判决 judgement; determination
            判决书 judgement; determination; verdict (指陪审团作出的)
            旁证 circumstantial evidence
            陪审员 juror
            批准逮捕 approval of arrest
            破案 clear up a criminal case; solve a criminal case
            破产 bankruptcy; insolvency
            普通程序 general/ordinary procedure
            普通管辖 general jurisdiction
            企业法人破产还债程序 procedure of bankruptcy and liquidation of a business corporation
            起诉 filing of a lawsuit
            起诉 sue; litigate; prosecute; institution of proceedings
            起诉状 indictment; information
            区县检察院 grassroots People's Procuratorate
            取保候审 the bail pending trial with restricted liberty of moving
            缺席判决 default judgement
            人民调解委员会 People's Mediation Committee
            认定财产无主案件 cases concerning determination of property as qwnerless
            认定公民无民事行为能力、限制民事行为能力案件cases concerning determination of a citizen as incompetent or with limited disposing capacity
            上诉 appeal
            上诉人 appellant
            上诉状 petition for appeal
            少管所 juvenile prison
            社会治安综合治理 comprehensive treatment of social security
            涉外案件 cases involving foreign interests
            涉外民事诉讼 foreign civil proceedings
            涉外刑事诉讼 foreign criminal proceedings
            申请人 applicant; petitioner
            申请书 petition; application for arbitration
            申请执行人 execution applicant
            申诉人宣誓书 claimant's affidavit of authenticity
            申诉书 appeal for revision; petition for revision
            神示证据制度 system of divinity evidence
            神示制度 ordeal system
            审查案件 case review
            审查并决定逮捕 examine and decide arrest
            审查起诉阶段 stage of review and prosecution
            审理通知书 notice of hearing
            审判长 presiding judge
            审判长宣布开庭 presiding judge announce court in session
            审判管辖 adjudgement/trial jurisdiction
            审判监督程序 procedure for trial supervision
            审判委员会 judicial committee
            审判员 judge
            审问式诉讼 inquisitional proceedings
            生效判决裁定 legally effective judgement/order
            胜诉方 winning party
            省市自治区检察院 higher People's Procuratorate
            失踪和死亡宣告 declaration of disappearance and death
            实(质)体证据 substantial evidence
            实物证据 tangible evidence
            实在证据 real evidence
            示意证据 demonstrative evidence
            视听证据 audio-visual evidence
            收容所 collecting post; safe retreat
            首席大法官 chief justice
            首席检察官 chief procurator
            受害人的近亲属 victim's immediate family
            受理 acceptance
            受理刑事案件审批表 registration form of acceptance of criminal case
            受送达人 the addressee
            书记员 court clerk
            书记员宣读法庭纪律 court clerk reads court rules
            书证 documentary evidence
            司法部 Ministry of Justice
            司法机关 judicial organizatons
            司法警察 judicial police
            司法局 judicial bureau
            司法厅 judicial bureau at the levels of provinces, autonomous regions, and cities under direct jurisdiction of central government
            司法协助 judicial assistance
            死缓的复核 judicial review of death sentence with a retrieve
            死刑复核程序 procedure for judicial review of death sentence
            死刑复核权 competence for judicial review of death sentence
            送达 service of process
            送达传票 service of summons/subpoena
            送达诉状 service of bill of complaint
            搜查 search
            诉 sue; suit; action; lawsuit
            诉前财产保全 property attachment prior to lawsuit
            诉讼 litigation; lawsuit; sue; action
            诉讼保全 attachment
            诉讼参加人 litigious participants
            诉讼代理人 agent ad litem
            诉状 complaint; bill of complaint; state of claim
            特别程序 special procedures
            提起公诉 institute a public prosecution
            铁路法院 railway court
            铁路检察院 railroad transport procuratorate
            庭审程序 procedure of court trial
            通缉 wanted for arrest
            投案 appearance
            退回补充侦查 return of a case for supplementary investigation
            委托辩护 entrusted defense
            未成年人法庭 juvenile court
            无行政职务的法官 associate judge
            无正当理由拒不到庭 refuse to appear in court without due cause
            无罪判决 acquittal, finding of " not guilty "
            物证 material evidence
            先予执行申请书 application for advanced execution
            先予执行 advanced execution
            刑事案件 criminal case
            刑事拘留 criminal detention
            刑事强制拘留 criminal coercive/compulsory measures
            刑事审判庭 criminal tribunal
            刑事诉讼 criminal proceedings
            刑事诉讼法 Criminal Procedural Law
            刑事自诉状 self-incriminating criminal complaint
            行政案件 administrative case
            行政审判庭 administrative tribunal
            行政诉讼 administrative proceedings
            行政诉讼法 Administrative Procedural Law
            宣告失踪、宣告死亡案件 cases concerning the declaration of disappearance and death
            宣判笔录 record of rendition of judgement
            选民资格案件 cases concerning qualifications of voters
            询问证人 inquire/question a witness
            训诫 reprimand
            讯问笔录 record of interrogation
            询问犯罪嫌疑人 interrogate criminal suspect
            言词证据 verbal evidence
            要求传唤证人申请书 application for subpoena
            一裁终局 arbitration award shall be final and binding
            一审 trial of first instance
            一审案件 case of trial of first instance
            应诉通知书 notice of respondence to action
            有罪判决 sentence; finding of "guilty"
            予审 preliminary examinantion; pretrial
            原告 plaintiff
            院长 court president
            阅卷笔录 record of file review (by lawyers)
            再审案件 case of retrial
            再审申请书 petition for retrial
            责令具结悔过 order to sign a statement of repentance
            债权人会议 creditors' meeting
            侦查阶段 investigation stage
            侦查终结 conclusion of investigation
            征询原、被告最后意见 consulting final opinion of the plaintiff and defendant
            证据 evidence
            证据保全 preserve evidence
            证据保全申请书 application for evidence preservation
            证人证言 testimony of witness; affidavit
            支付令 payment order/warrant
            知识产权庭 intellectual property tribunal
            执行程序 procedure execution
            执行逮捕 execution of arrest
            执行和解 conciliation of execution
            执行回转 recovery of execution
            执行庭 executive tribunal
            执行异议 objection to execution
            执行员 executor
            执行中止 discontinuance of execution
            执行终结 conclusion of execution
            指定辩护 appointed defense
            指定仲裁员声明 statement of appointing arbitrator
            中级人民法院 intermediate People's Court
            中途退庭 retreat during court session without permission
            仲裁 arbitration
            仲裁被诉人 respondent; defendant
            仲裁裁决 award
            仲裁申请书 arbitration
            仲裁申诉人 claimant; plaintiff
            仲裁庭 arbitration tribunal
            仲裁委员会 arbitration committee
            仲裁协议 arbitration agreement; clauses of arbitration
            仲裁员 arbitrator
            主诉检察官 principal procurator
            助理检察官 assistant procurator
            助理审判员 assistant judge
            专门法院 special court
            专门管辖 specific jurisdiction
            专属管辖 exclusive jurisdiction
            追究刑事责任 investigate for criminal responsibility
            自首 confession to justice
            自诉案件 private-prosecuting case
            自行辩护 self-defense
            自由心证制度 doctrine of discretional evaluation of evidence
            自侦案件 self-investigating case
            最高人民法院 the Supreme People's Court
            最高人民检察院 the Supreme People's Procuratorate
            最后裁决书 final award
            三、 民事法律
            法律渊源 source of law
            制定法 statute
            判例法 case law; precedent
            普通法 common law
            特别法 special law
            固有法 native law; indigenous law
            继受法 adopted law
            实体法 substantial law
            程序法 procedural law
            原则法 fundamental law
            例外法 exception law
            司法解释 judicial interpretation
            习惯法 customary law
            公序良俗 public order and moral
            自然法 natural law
            罗马法 Roman Law
            私法 private law
            公法 public law
            市民法 jus civile
            万民法 jus gentium
            民法法系 civil law system
            英美法系 system of Anglo-American law
            大陆法系 civil law system
            普通法 common law
            大陆法 continental law
            罗马法系 Roman law system
            英吉利法 English law
            衡平法 equity; law of equity
            日尔曼法 Germantic law
            教会法 ecclesiastical law
            寺院法 canon law
            伊斯兰法 Islamic law
            民法法律规范 norm of civil law
            授权规范 authorization norm
            禁止规范 forbidding norm
            义务性规范 obligatory norm
            命令性规范 commanding norm
            民法基本原则 fundamental principles of civil law
            平等原则 principle of equality
            自愿原则 principle of free will
            公平原则 principle of justice
            等价有偿原则 principle of equal value exchange
            诚实信用原则 principle of good faith
            行为 act
            作为 act
            不作为 omission
            合法行为 lawful act
            违法行为 unlawful act
            民事权利权利能力 civil right
            绝对权 absolute right
            相对权 relative right
            优先权 right of priority
            先买权 preemption
            原权 antecedent right
            救济权 right of relief
            支配权 right of dominion
            请求权 right of claim
            物上请求权 right of claim for real thing
            形成权 right of formation
            撤销权 right of claiming cancellation
            否认权 right of claiming cancellation
            解除权 right of renouncement
            代位权 subrogated right
            选择权 right of choice
            承认权 right of admission
            终止权 right of termination
            抗辩权 right of defense
            一时性抗辩权 momentary right of defense
            永久性抗辩权 permanent counter-argument right
            不安抗辩权 unstable counter-argument right
            同时履行抗辩权 defense right of simultaneous performance
            既得权 tested right
            期待权 expectant right
            专属权 exclusive right
            非专属权 non-exclusive right
            人身权利 personal right
            人权 human right
            人格权 right of personality
            生命健康权 right of life and health
            姓名权 right of name
            名称权 right of name
            肖像权 right of portraiture
            自由权 right of freedom
            名誉权 right reputation
            隐私权 right of privacy
            私生活秘密权 right of privacy
            贞操权 virginity right
            身份权 right of status
            亲权 parental power; parental right
            亲属权 right of relative
            探视权 visitation right
            配偶权 right of spouse
            荣誉权 right of honor
            权利的保护 protection of right
            公力救济 public protection
            私力救济 self-protection
            权利本位 standard of right
            社会本位 standard of society
            无责任行为 irresponsible right
            正当防卫 justifiable right; ligitimate defence
            防卫行为 act of defence
            自为行为 self-conducting act
            紧急避险 act of rescue; necessity
            自助行为 act of self-help
            不可抗力 force majeure
            意外事件 accident
            行为能力 capacity for act
            意思能力 capacity of will
            民事行为 civil act
            意思表示 declaration of intention
            意思表示一致 meeting of minds; consensus
            完全行为能力 perfect capacity for act
            限制行为能力 restrictive capacity for act
            准禁治产人 quasi-interdicted person
            保佐 protection
            自治产人 minor who is capable of administering his own capacity
            无行为能力 incapacity for act
            禁治产人 interdicted person
            自然人 natural person
            公民 citizen
            住所 domicile
            居所 residence
            经常居住地 frequently dwelling place
            户籍 census register
            监护 guardianship
            个体工商户 individual business
            农村承包经营户 leaseholding rural household
            合伙 partnership
            合伙人 partner
            合伙协议 partnership agreement
            合伙财产 property of partnership
            合伙债务 debt of partnership
            入伙 join partnership
            退伙 withdrawal from partnership
            合伙企业 partnership business establishment
            个人合伙 partnership
            法人合伙 partnership of legal person
            特别合伙 special partnership
            普通合伙 general partnership
            有限合伙 limited partnership
            民事合伙 civil partnership
            隐名合伙 sleeping partnership; dormant partnership
            私营企业 private enterprise; proprietorship
            法人 legal person
            企业法人 legal body of enterprise
            企业集团 group of enterprise
            关联企业 affiliate enterprise
            个人独资企业 individual business establishment
            国有独资企业 solely state-owned enterprise
            中外合资企业 Sino-foreign joint venture enterprise
            中外合作企业 Sino-foreign contractual enterprise
            社团法人 legal body of mass organization
            财团法人 legal body of financial group
            联营 joint venture
            法人型联营 association of legal persons
            合伙型联营 coordinated management in partnership
            协作型联营 cooperation-type coordinated management
            合作社 cooperative
            民事法律行为 civil legal act
            单方民事法律行为 unilateral civil legal act
            双方民事法律行为 bilateral civil legal act
            多方民事法律行为 joint act civil legal act
            有偿民事法律行为 civil legal act with consideration
            无偿民事法律行为 civil legal act without consideration; civil legal act without award
            实践性民事法律行为 practical civil legal act
            诺成性民事法律行为 consental civil legal act
            要式民事法律行为 formal civil legal act
            不要式民事法律行为 informal civil legal act
            要因民事法律行为 causative civil legal act
            不要因民事法律行为 noncausative civil legal act
            主民事法律行为 principal civil legal act
            从民事法律行为 accessory civil legal act
            附条件民事法律行为 conditional civil legal act
            附期限民事法律行为 civil legal act with term
            生前民事法律行为 civil legal act before death
            死后民事法律行为 civil legal act after death
            准民事法律行为 quasi-civil legal act
            无效行为 ineffective act
            可撤销民事行为 revocable civil act
            违法行为 illegal act; unlawful act
            侵权行为 tort
            欺诈 fraud
            胁迫 duress
            乘人之危 taking advantage of others' precarious position
            以合法形式掩盖非法目的 legal form concealing illegal intention
            恶意串通 malicious collaboration
            重大误解 gross misunderstanding
            显失公平 obvious unjust
            误传 misrepresentation
            代理 agency
            本人 principal
            被代理人 principal
            受托人 trustee
            代理人 agent
            本代理人 original agent
            法定代理人 statutory agent; legal agent
            委托代理人 agent by mandate
            指定代理人 designated agent
            复代理人 subagent
            再代理人 subagent
            转代理人 subagent
            代理权 right of agency
            授权行为 act of authorization
            授权委托书 power of attorney
            代理行为 act of agency
            委托代理 agency by mandate
            本代理 original agency
            复代理 subagency
            次代理 subagency
            有权代理 authorized agency
            表见代理 agency by estoppel; apparent agency
            律师代理 agency by lawyer
            普通代理 general agency
            全权代理 general agency
            全权代理委托书 general power of attorney
            共同代理 joint agency
            独家代理 sole agency
            居间 brokerage
            居间人 broker
            行纪 commission; broker house
            信托 trust
            时效 time limit; prescription; limitation
            时效中止 suspension of prescription/limitation
            时效中断 interruption of limitation/prescription
            时效延长 extension of limitation
            取得时效 acquisitive prescription
            时效终止 lapse of time; termination of prescription
            期日 date
            期间 term
            涉外民事关系 civil relations with foreign elements
            冲突规范 rule of conflict
            准据法 applicable law; governing law
            反致 renvoi; remission
            转致 transmission
            识别 identification
            公共秩序保留 reserve of public order
            法律规避 evasion of law
            国籍 nationality
            国有化 nationalization
            法律责任 legal liability
            民事责任 civil liability/responsibility
            行政责任 administrative liability/responsibility
            刑事责任 criminal liability/responsibility
            违约责任 liability of breach of contract; responsibility of default
            有限责任 limited liability
            无限责任 unlimited liability
            按份责任 shared/several liability
            连带责任 joint and several liability
            过失责任 liability for negligence; negligent liability
            过错责任 fault liability; liability for fault
            单独过错 sole fault
            共同过错 joint fault
            混合过错 mixed fault
            被害人过错 victim's fault
            第三人过错 third party's fault
            推定过错 presumptive fault
            恶意 bad faith; malice
            故意 deliberate intention; intention; willfulness
            过失 negligence
            重大过失 gross negligence
            疏忽大意的过失 careless and inadvertent negligence
            过于自信的过失 negligence with undue assumption
            损害事实 facts of damage
            有形损失 tangible damage/loss
            无形损失 intangible damage/loss
            财产损失 property damage/loss
            人身损失 personal damage/loss
            精神损失 spiritual damage/loss
            民事责任承担方式 methods of bearing civil liability
            停止侵害 cease the infringing act
            排除妨碍 exclusion of hindrance; removal of obstacle
            消除危险 elimination of danger
            返还财产 restitution of property
            恢复原状 restitution; restitution of original state
            赔偿损失 compensate for a loss; indemnify for a loss
            支付违约金 payment of liquidated damage
            消除影响 eliminate ill effects
            恢复名誉 rehabilitate one's reputation
            赔礼道歉 extend a formal apology
            物权 jus ad rem; right in rem; real right
            物权制度 real right system; right in rem system
            一物一权原则 the principal of One thing, One Right
            物权法定主义 principal of legality of right in rem
            物权公示原则 principal of public summons of right in rem
            物权法 jus rerem
            物 property
            生产资料 raw material for production
            生活资料 means of livelihood; means of subsistence
            流通物 res in commercium; a thing in commerce
            限制流通物 limited merchantable thing
            禁止流通物 res extra commercium; a thing out of commerce
            资产 asset
            固定资产 fixed asset
            流动资产 current asset; floating asset
            动产 movables; chattel
            不动产 immovable; real estate
            特定物 res certae; a certain thing
            种类物 genus; indefinite thing
            可分物 res divisibiles; divisible things
            不可分物 res indivisibiles; indivisible things
            主物 res capitalis; a principal thing
            从物 res accessoria; an accessory thing
            原物 original thing
            孳息 fruits
            天然孳息 natural fruits
            法定孳息 legal fruits
            无主物 bona vacatia; vacant goods; ownerless goods
            遗失物 lost property
            漂流物 drifting object
            埋藏物 fortuna; hidden property
            货币 currency
            证券 securities
            债券 bond
            物权分类 classification of right in rem/real right
            自物权 jus in re propria; right of full ownership
            所有权 dominium; ownership; title
            所有权凭证 document of title; title of ownership
            占有权 dominium utile; equitable ownership
            使用权 right of use; right to use of
            收益权 right to earnings; right to yields
            处分权 right of disposing; jus dispodendi
            善意占有 possession in good faith
            恶意占有 malicious possession
            按份共有 several possession
            共同共有 joint possession
            他物权 jus in re aliena
            用益物权 real right for usufruct
            使用权 right to use; right of use
            土地使用权 right to the use of land
            林权 forest ownership
            采矿权 mining ownership
            经营权 managerial authority; power of management
            承包经营权 right to contracted management
            相邻权 neighboring right; relatedright
            地上权 superficies
            永佃权 jus emphyteuticum; right to landed estate granted in perpetuity through a contract
            地役权 servitude; easement
            人役权 servitus personarum; personal servitude
            担保物权 real right for security
            物的担保 security for thing
            物的瑕疵担保 warranty against defect of a thing
            抵押权 hypotheca; hypothecation; right to mortgage
            抵押权的设定 creation of right to mortgage
            抵押人 mortgagor
            抵押权人 mortgagee
            抵押标的物 collateral; estate under mortgage
            抵押权的效力 deffect of right to mortgage
            抵押权的次序 sequence of right to mortgage
            抵押权的抛弃 abandonment of right to mortgage
            抵押权的让与 alienation of right to mortgage
            抵押权的实现 materialization of right to mortgage
            抵押权的消灭 extinction of right to
            mortgageregistration of estate under mortgage
            抵押物登记 registration of estate under mortgage
            抵押优先权 priority of mortgage
            留置权 lien
            一般留置权 general lien
            特别留置权 special lien
            质权 hypotheque; pledge; right of pledge
            佃权 tenant right
            债权 jus in personam; right to give or procure; claim; creditor's right
            债权人 creditor
            债务人 debtor
            相对人 counterpart; offeree
            给付 give; pay
            债务 debt; liability; obligation
            债务的偿还 payment of debt
            债务的偿清 discharge of debt
            债务的担保 guarantee of debt
            债务的合并 consolidation of debt
            债务的给付日期 debt maturity
            债务的免除 exemption of debt
            债的分类 obligatio; obligation
            法定之债 legal obligation
            任意之债 voluntary obligation
            简单之债 simple obligation
            选择之债 alternative obligation
            主债 prime/principal obligation
            从债 accessory obligation
            单一之债 single obligation
            按份之债 several obligation
            连带之债 joint obligation
            特定之债 certain obligation
            种类之债 indefinite obligation
            合同之债 contractual obligation
            侵权行为之债 tort obligation
            损害赔偿之债 obligation of compensation for injury; obligation of damages
            人身损害 damage to person
            精神损害 moral/mental/spiritual damage
            医药费 hospital treatment expense
            医疗费 medical charge
            抚恤金 pension
            慰问金 consolation money
            产品瑕疵 defect of product
            不当得利 unjust enrichment
            无因管理 voluntary service
            债的担保 guarantee of obligation
            财产担保 property guarantee
            信用担保 credit guarantee
            让与担保 alienation guarantee
            保证 guaranty
            明示保证 express guaranty
            默示保证 implied guaranty
            保证人 guarantor
            保证合同 contract of guaranty/suretyship
            保证金 guaranty bond; security deposit
            押金 deposit; foregift
            预付款 advanced payment
            定金 earnest money; deposit
            违约金 liquidated damages
            法定违约金 liquidated damages by law
            约定违约金 liquidated damages by agreement
            债的履行 performance of obligation
            实际履行原则 doctrine of specific performance
            情事变更原则 doctrine of change of circumstances
            不当履行 misfeasance
            清偿 discharge; satisfaction
            提存 debtor's submission of the subject matter of obligation to competent authority
            抵销 setoff
            知识产权 intellectual property
            知识产权国际保护 international protection of intellectual property
            国民待遇原则 doctrine of national treatment
            优先权原则 a right of priority doctrine
            自动保护原则 doctrine of automatic protection
            特许权使用费 royalties
            智力成果 intellectual property
            著作权 copyright
            版权 copyright
            著作权人 copyright owner
            创作 creation
            作品 opus; product; work
            著作人格权 right of personality of copyright
            发表权 right of publication
            署名权 right of authorship; right of paternity
            修改权 right of modification; right of revision
            完整性保持权 right to maintain integrity
            不可侵犯权 inviolability
            收回权 right of recall; right of retrieval
            自费出版 publish a book at the author's own expense
            著作财产权 property right in work
            使用收益分享权 right to share usufruct
            利用权 right to make use of
            获得报酬权 right to get payment
            重播权 right of rebroadcasting
            录制权 right of fixation
            机械复制权 right of mechanograph; right of mechanical reproduction
            著作邻接权 neighboring right of copyright
            剽窃 plagiary; plagiarism
            盗版 pirate
            盗版VCD pirated VCD
            伪造 forge
            工业产权 industrial property
            专利权 patent right
            优先权日 priority date
            申请在先原则 prior application rule
            使用在先 priority of use
            新颖性 novelty
            创造性 creativity
            实用性 practicability
            发明创造 invention and creation
            实用新型 utility model
            外观设计 design; industrial design
            发明权 right of invention
            发现权 right of discovery
            专利申请 patent application
            专利异议 objection to a patent
            专利公告 patent gazette
            专利续展费 renewal fee of patent
            专利许可协议 patent licensing agreement
            技术诀窍 know-how
            专有技术 know-how
            专利证书 certificate of patent
            专利事务所 patent office
            专利代理 patent agency
            中华人民共和国专利局 Patent Office of the People's Republic of China
            商标权 trademark right
            商标国际注册 international registration of trademark
            商品商标 commodity trademark
            服务商标 service trademark
            驰名商标 reputed trademark
            广告商标 advertisement trademark
            近似商标 similar trademark
            商标评审委员会 trade review and appraisal board
            商标审查 trademark examination
            商标侵权 trademark infringement
            商标注册 registered trademark
            商标公告 trademark gazette
            注册商标使用许可 licensing of registered trademark
            注册商标转让 assignment of registered trademark
            商标使用许可协议 trademark licensing agreement
            商标事务所 trademark office
            商标代理 trademark agency
            婚姻、家庭、继承、收养 marriage, family, inheritance, adoption
            婚姻法 marital law; marriage law
            包办婚姻 arranged marriage
            财产分割 partition; dismemberment of property
            重婚 bigamy
            独生子女 only child
            法律婚 legal marriage
            非婚生子女 illegitimate child
            夫妻共同财产 community property
            夫妻关系 conjugal relationship
            夫妻分居 divorce a mensa et thoro; divorce from bed and board
            复婚 resumption of marriage
            感情破裂 incompatibility
            婚后财产公证 notarization of postnuptial properties
            婚姻登记 marriage registration
            婚生子女 ligitimate child
            计划生育 birth control
            结婚 marry
            离婚 divorce
            买卖婚姻 mercenary marriage
            拟制血亲 blood relations in fiction of law
            旁系血亲 collateral relation blood relation
            涉外婚姻 marriage with foreign elements
            配偶 spouse
            事实婚 de facto marriage
            诉讼离婚 divorce by litigation
            探视权 visitation right
            同居 cohabitation
            晚婚 late marriage
            无效婚姻 void marriage
            协议离婚 divorce by agreement
            一夫一妻制 monogamy
            早婚 early marriage
            直系血亲 lineal descent
            自然血亲 natural blood relation
            收养法 adoption law
            收养协议 adoption agreement
            收养人 adoptive parent
            送养人 person or institution placing out a child for adoption
            涉外收养 adoption with foreign elements
            继承法 inheritance law; law of succession
            法定继承 legal seccession
            遗嘱继承 intestate succession
            遗赠继承 succession by devise
            自然继承 natural succession
            代位继承 representation; succession by subrogation
            世袭继承 hereditary succession
            间接继承 indirect succession
            转继承 subsuccession
            共同继承 joint succession
            单独继承 single succession
            继承人 heir; successor
            第二顺序继承人 successor second in order
            第一顺序继承人 successor first in order
            继承参与人 succession participant
            遗产 inheritance; heritage
            遗产继承人 heir to property; inheritor
            遗言 last will and testament
            遗书 last words
            遗赠 bequest; legacy; devise
            遗赠抚养协议 legacy-support ageement
            四、 商事法律
            会计法 accounting law
            税法 tax law; taxation law
            反不正当竞争法 anti-unfair competition law
            消费者权益保护法 consumer's interest protection law
            产品责任法 production liability law
            消费者权益法 consumer rights and interests law
            公司法 company law; corporate law
            公司 company; corporation
            有限责任公司 limited liability company
            股份有限公司 company limited by shares
            无限公司 unlimited company
            股份两合公司 joint stock limited liability partnership
            两合公司 joint liability company
            控股公司 holding company
            集团公司 group company
            合资公司 joint venture company
            联营公司 associated company; affiliated company
            国营公司 state-own company
            国有公司 state-owned company
            民营公司 civilian-run company
            本国公司 national/domestic company
            外国公司 foreign company
            上市公司 listed company
            母公司 parent company
            子公司 subsidiary
            皮包公司 briefcase company; fundless company
            募集设立 incorporation by stock floatation
            发起人 floater; initiator
            公司名称 name of company
            公司住址 domicile of company
            出资 contribution; capital subscription
            现金出资 investment in cash
            实物出资 investment in kind
            工业产权出资 investment in industrial property right
            非专有技术出资 investment in non-patent technology
            劳务出资 investment in labor
            高新技术成果出资 investment in hi-tech achievements
            注册资本 registered capital
            实缴资本 paid-in capital
            验资报告 capital verification report
            会计师事务所 certified public accountants
            注册会计师 certified public accountant
            资本三原则 three doctrine of capital
            资本确定原则 doctrine of capital determination
            资本维持原则 doctrine of capital maintenance
            资本不变原则 doctrine of unchanging capital
            最低资本额制度 minimum capital system
            公司章程 articles of association; articles of incorporation; bylaw
            公司登记 incorporation; corporate registration
            公司存续 existence of company
            公司合并分立 merger and split of company
            公司并购 corporate merger and acquisition
            公司管理 corporate governance; company management
            公司法律顾问 corporate counsel
            公司整顿 company rectification
            公司歇业 closure of business
            公司和解 company composition
            公司解散 company dissolution
            公司清算 company liquidation
            公司清理 company winding-up
            竞业禁止 non-commpete; competition prohibition
            招股章程 prospectus
            股本 stock capital
            股东 shareholder
            股东大会 shareholders' meeting
            股东大会决议 resolution of shareholders' meeting
            股东大会议事规则 rule of procedure of shareholders' meeting
            表决权 voting right; right to, , vote
            董事 director
            董事长 president/chairman of the board
            首席执行官 chief executive officer(CEO)
            首席运营官 chief operation officer(COO)
            执行董事 executive director
            常务董事 managing director
            董事会 board of directors
            董事会领导下的经理负责制 responsibility system of the chief executive officer under the leadership of the board of directors
            经理独立负责制 manager independent responsibility system
            监事 supervisor
            监事会 board of supervisors
            股 share; stock
            普通股 common stock
            特别股 special stock
            资格股 qualification stock
            优先股 preferred stock
            劣后股 inferior stock
            表决权股 stock with voting power
            溢价股 premium stock
            折价股 converting stock
            国家股 state-owned share
            集体股 collective share
            法人股 corporate share
            企业股 enterprise share
            个人股 individual share
            股息 dividend
            红股 bonus stock; dividend stock
            法定公积金 legal accumulation fund
            资本公积金 capital accumulation fund
            盈余公积金 surplus accumulation fund
            任意公积金 optional accumulation fund
            公司犯罪 corporate crime
            证券法 securities law
            证券发行 issuance of securities
            证券上市 list securities; float an issue
            证券交易所 stock exchange
            证券商 securities dealer
            证券公司 securities company
            证券承销商 consortium of underwriters
            证券承销合同 underwriting contract
            证券经纪人 securities broker
            披露制度 disclosing system
            交割日 closing date
            风险投资基金 venture capital fund
            上海证券交易所 Shanghai Stock Exchange
            深圳证券交易所 Shenzhen Stock Exchange
            证券监督委员会 securities supervision committee
            票据法 law of negotiable instrument
            票据 notes; bills; commercial instruments
            商业票据 bill; commercial instrument
            远期票据 time bill;; long-dated bill
            到期票据 matured bill
            即期票据 sight bill
            记名票据 bill payable to order; note to order
            不记名票据 bearer instrument
            本票 promissory note
            支票 cheque
            汇票 bill of exchange
            发票日 ticket day
            出票日 date of draft/issue
            发票地 place of draft/issue
            票据到期日 bill to mature
            票据金额 sum of bill
            票面价额 face value
            票据出票人 drawer
            票据持票人 bill holder
            票据承兑人 bill acceptor
            票据行为 act on commercial paper
            承兑票据 honor a bill
            票据议付 negotiation
            拒付票据 protest a bill
            票据付款人 drawee
            票据支付人 payer on commercial instrument
            票据收款人 bill collector
            票据背书人 endorser/indorser of a bill
            被背书人 endorsee
            票据保证人 bill guarantor
            票据被保证人 bill pledgee/warrantee
            再追索人 renewed recourser
            前手 remote holder
            后手 subsequent endorser
            票据权利 right of bill
            票据期限 term of bill; tenor
            票据债务人 debtor of commercial instrument
            追索权 right of recourse
            票据抗辩 exception to bill
            票据丧失 loss of bill
            票据时效 prescription of exchanges
            票据贴现 discount of bill
            再贴现 rediscount of bill
            恩惠期间 term of benevolence
            票据代理 agency for notes/bills/commercial instruments
            海商法 maritime law
            船舶国籍证书 certificate of registry; certificate of ship's nationality
            船棋国 flag country
            船舶所有权证书 certificate of ship ownership
            船舶检验 register of ship
            船舶保险 insurance on hull
            船舶保险单 hull insurance policy
            船舶登记证书 certificate of registry
            船舶丈量 tonnage measurement of ships
            船舶进港费 groundage
            船舶抵押 ship mortgage
            船舶租赁 ship chartering
            船舶转租 ship subchartering
            船舶所有人责任限制 limitation of liabilities of ship owners
            船舶碰撞 ship collision
            船舶遇难 maritime distress
            海上灾难 perils of the sea
            海上拖航 marine towage
            船舶扣押 detention of ship
            船舶债权 ship's credit
            船级社 classification society
            船级证书 certificate of class
            海上留置权 maritime lien
            船舶留置权 maritime lien
            船舶抵押权 maritime mortgage
            海上优先请求权 priority claim to seagoing ships
            救助优先权 priority claim to salvage
            共同海损优先权 priority claim to general average
            服务优先权 priority claim to service
            货物损害优先权 priority claim to cargo damage
            传播抵押借款和货物抵押借款优先权 priority claim to ship credit and goods credit
            海运合同 shipping contract
            提单 bill of lading(B/L)
            空舱费 dead freight
            租船费 charterage
            租船合同 charter-party contract of affreightment
            期租船合同 time charter-party; time CP
            航次租船合同 voyage charter-party
            定期租船合同 time charter-party
            光船租船合同 bareboat charter-party; bareboat CP
            包租运输合同 shipping charter-party
            海上旅客运输合同 contract for carriage of passengers by sea
            远洋拖带合同 contract of ocean towage
            港内拖带合同 contract of port towage
            海难救助合同 salvage contract
            海事报告 master's protest;; sea protest
            海事声明书 sea protest
            海事争议 maritime dispute
            海事法院 maritime court;; admiralty court
            海事诉讼程序 maritime proceedings
            船舶碰撞案件的民事管辖权 civil jurisdiction of sea collision
            船舶碰撞案件的刑事管辖权 criminal jurisdiction of sea collision
            海事争议的审理 hearing/trial of maritime disputes
            海事诉讼保全措施 measures for maritime attachment
            海事优先请求权 preferential right top maritime claim
            海事请求保全申请书 application/petition for maritime attachment
            海事诉讼法律文书送达 service of legal instruments in maritime action/proceedings
            涉外海事诉讼管辖权 jurisdiction of maritime action involving for elements
            强制变卖被扣押船舶 compulsory realization of the distrained ship
            海事仲裁程序规则 rules of maritime arbitration procedure
            保险法 insurance law
            自愿保险 voluntary insurance
            强制保险 compulsory insurance
            商业保险 commercial insurance
            财产保险 property insurance
            人身保险 personal insurance
            人寿保险 life insurance
            健康保险 health insurance
            意外保险 accident insurance
            社会保险 social insurance
            养老保险 endowment insurance
            医疗保险 medical insurance
            失业保险 unemployment insurance
            信用保险 credit insurance
            保证保险 guaranty insurance
            保险合同 insurance contract
            保险人 insurer; underwriter
            被保险人 the insured
            受益人 benificiary
            投保人 applicant for insurance;; policy holder
            保险单 insurance policy
            保险标的 insurance object
            保险费 premium
            保险期限 time limit of insurance
            保险利益 insurable interest
            保险金额 insurance; insurance compensation
            保险事故 insurance accident
            保险赔偿 insurance indemnity
            保险代理人 insurance agent
            保险经纪人 insurance broker
            索赔 claim
            代位索赔 claim by subrogation
            理赔 settlement of claim
            代位求偿权 right of subrogation
            委付 abandonment
            退保 cancellation/discharging of insurance
            刑法学 criminal law; penal law
            犯罪学 criminology
            犯罪心理学 criminal psychology
            劳动改造法学 reform-through-labor
            中国刑法史 history of Chinese criminal law
            比较刑法学 comparative criminal law
            刑事侦查 criminal detection
            司法精神病学 forensic psychiatry
            罪刑法定原则 principal of a legally prescribed punishment for a specified crime
            罪刑相适应原则 principal of suiting punishment to crime
            罪责自负原则 principal of bearing responsibility solely for one's own crime
            惩罚与教育相结合原则 principal of combining punishment with education
            从旧原则 the doctrine of observing old laws
            从新原则 the doctrine of observing new laws
            从旧兼从轻原则 the doctrine of observing old laws and new ones when with lighter punishment
            从新兼从轻原则 the doctrine of observing new laws and old ones when with lighter punishment
            追诉时效 limitation of prosecution
            刑事责任 criminal liability/responsibility
            刑事责任年龄 age for criminal responsibility
            刑事责任能力 criminal responsibility; capacity for criminal responsibility
            犯罪 crime; commit a crime
            故意犯罪 intentional crime; willful crime
            过失犯罪 negligent crime
            犯罪构成 constitution of a crime
            犯罪主体 subject of a crime
            犯罪客体 object of a crime
            犯罪的主观方面 subjective elements of a crime
            犯罪的客观方面 objective elements of a crime
            犯罪对象 target of a crime
            犯罪故意 criminal intent; mens rea
            直接故意 actual intent; direct intent
            间接故意 indirect intent
            犯罪过失 criminal negligence
            疏忽大意的过失 careless negligence
            过于自信的过失 negligence with undue assumption
            不能预见 unforeseeable; unpredictable
            不能避免 unavoidable
            犯罪动机 criminal motive
            犯罪目的 criminal intent; criminal purpose
            防卫过当 unjustifiable self-defense
            紧急避险 act of rescue; necessity
            犯罪既遂 completion of a crime
            犯罪未遂 attempted crime
            犯罪形态 criminal pattern
            犯罪预备 a crime in preparation; preparation for a crime
            犯意表示 expression for a crime
            犯罪中止 abandonment/discontinuance of a crime
            犯罪中断 suspension of a crime
            行为犯 behavioral offence
            危险犯 potential damage offence
            结果犯 consequential offence
            结果加重犯 aggregated consequential offence
            类推 analogy
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